Now scientists have focused on the use of nanomedicine for cancer treatment. Within this trend, researchers from Belgium and Mexico were given the task of studying the behavior of drugs with the inclusion of iron oxide nanoparticles, which allow to attack tumor cells or cancer tissues directly, in order to find an alternative safer and more successful to radio or chemotherapy.
Unlike other therapies, iron oxide nanoparticles possess an inducible magnetization, which allow them to be directed towards a specific tissue and cause hyperthermia (heat stroke) to kill tumors. However, despite its potential benefits, also bring new challenges to the security of patient health, so it should be analyzed to make sure their effectiveness and to keep away from possible difficult effects.
It is intended that with iron oxide nanoparticles are drugs that are additional efficient, are encapsulated and prevents the body metabolism deviate, to attack directly to diseased cells and there are no side effects. The magnetic nanoparticles have compensation injecting the blood through an external magnetic field, similar to a magnet, are carried to the tumor, which vibrates the material and raises the tissue temperature to destroy unwanted tissue.
In the experiments were compared different types of particles and exposed to proteins and cells in a real simulation scenario (in vitro and animal models) in order to assess side effects and detect which type of coating is more biocompatible with the body. The difficulty of working with iron oxide nanoparticles is that when injected into the body, the immune system recognizes it as a threat and modifies its effectiveness disables the drug or causes oxidative stress.
Therefore, the investigation worked with three types of nanoparticles: naked, covered with polyethylene glycol polymers (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with the aim of discovering which of them goes unnoticed by the body and right on target attacks, detailed specialist nanotoxicology. One of the adverse effects of iron oxide nanoparticles is oxidative stress, an imbalance between free radicals from the body that affect biomolecules such as lipids or carbohydrates. Another is local or systemic inflammation, which may be associated with more serious as thrombosis, or anaphylactic shock conditions who takes his doctorate in toxicology.
In rodent models exposed to nanoparticles coated with PEG increased the concentration of molecules called anaphylotoxins that can cause anaphylactic shock when created in large quantities, in addition to increased pro-inflammatory cytokines both local and systemic presented.